Managerial epidemiology is integrated through general management functions. Explain each of the management functions in terms of the managerial epidemiology, i.e., what are the: a. Planning functions, example(s)? b. Directing functions, example(s)? c. Controlling functions, example(s)? d. Organizing functions, example(s)? e. Financing function, example(s)? 2. Describe the “natural history of disease” and disease progression from its inception to its resolution. 3. What are some of the many epidemiologic contributions to quality assurance in healthcare and public health? 4. Case Study #1 . Food poisoning outbreak at Bluegrass Hospital An outbreak of food poisoning occurred among the 400 staff and patients at Bluegrass Hospital a few hours after eating dinner. Among the 60 people who became ill, the Symptoms were mainly nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. The infection control nurse investigated the outbreak and reported results in Table 2.5 Below ____________________ Questions: 5 pts each 1. How many times more likely are people who consumed specific food items to get sick compared to those who did not consume each item? 2.. Which food item is the most likely cause of this “common source” outbreak? 3.. What are the incubation period and most likely cause of the outbreak? 5. Case Study #2: Osteoporosis Marketing Plan You are the Director of Community Relations, reporting to the Chief Operating Officer (COO) at Allright Memorial Hospital, Anywhere, USA. You have been asked by your COO to spearhead a community council with local public health officials, who will be focused on women over 50 for the prevention of osteoporosis. Your committee’s strategic plan SWOT analyses revealed the following information. _________ Background: The purpose of this project is to create an intervention prevention program that minimizes osteoporosis in women over 50 and with the health risks associated with the condition for Anywhere, USA. Per the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS), abstracted from medical claims data, “an estimated 10 million Americans have osteoporosis and 34 million Americans have low bone mass, placing them at an increased risk for osteoporosis. An analysis, using the Anywhere, USA state hospital database shows a slightly higher rate of risk than the national average. The report shows that osteoporosis is responsible for more than 1.5 million fractures annually, including 300,000 hip fractures, 700,000 vertebral fractures, 250,000 wrist fractures, and more than 300,000 fractures of other sites. Osteoporosis can be prevented. Early diagnosis and treatment can reduce or prevent fractures from occurring”. (CMS 2007) The Committee Objectives: 1. To research and identify best community partners and interventions for prevention of high risk osteoporosis residents in Anywhere, USA. 2. To use create a health promotion marketing plan for early bone density screening targeted throughout the Anywhere, USA communities. Targets: At Risk Population for Osteoporosis Age: Postmenopausal woman over ˃＝ 50 years of age Race: Caucasian, Asian, African-American and Hispanic women History: Women who have a family or personal history of fractures after age 50 Health Conditions: Women who have menopause before the age of 45 due to a medical condition or unknown cause. Healh Behaviors: Women who have premature menopause due to anorexia, bulimia, tabacco and alcohol use, or excessive exercise. Nutrient Deficiencies: Calcium and/or vitamin D deficiency Lifestyle: Sedentary, inactive lifestyle Medical Treatements: Steroid (corticosteroids), radiation and/or chemotherapy treatments Source: NIH 2010, Chart: Meyer 2010 ________________ Case Questions: 1. Using reliable primary resources do research and determine who the best community partners, and the most effective interventions for prevention promotion for high risk osteoporosis residents in Anywhere, USA. Your own hospital is one community partner, and it radiology services (bone density machines) are a resource. What other and resources within the community would be appropriate? 2. Create a health promotion marketing plan for early bone density screening targeted throughout the Anywhere, USA communities using the 4-Ps. Your marketing plan also needs a mission statement, a statement of purpose, objectives and timelines of how you will implement the program.